View Full Essay Words: Transit's success depends on the ability of planners to make the lives of travelers worse off by making it harder to get around, restricting housing choice and type, and subjecting people to all manner of externalities and lifestyles they routinely choose to avoid in the current housing market place e. In fact, between andmass transit's share of the nation's passenger miles of non-marine, surface transportation decreased from 1. This can be shown in many cities where the economic cost of the commuting time is huge.
Ablex Publishing Corporation,pp. Here we address sources of exclusion determined not by rules that keep women out, but by ways of thinking that make them reluctant to join in.
Our central thesis is that equal access to even the most basic elements of computation requires an epistemological pluralism, accepting the validity of multiple ways of knowing and thinking.
With this assertion we find ourselves at the meeting point of three epistemological challenges to the hegemony of the abstract, formal, and logical as the privileged canon in scientific thought. The first of these challenges comes from within feminist scholarship.
Here, the canonical style, abstract and rule-driven, is associated with power and elitism, and with the social construction of science and objectivity as male. They show us how within laboratories there is a great deal of thinking that does not respect the canon and how "ordinary" people in their kitchens and workplaces make very effective use of a down-to-earth mathematical thinking very different from the abstract and formal math they were taught at school.
A third challenge most often presents itself as neutral and technical. It is a challenge from within computation, as when the maverick Macintosh with its iconic interface made its bid against the established IBM personal computer.
That the computer should be an ally in the revaluation of the concrete has a certain irony; in both the popular and technical cultures there has been a systematic construction of the computer as the ultimate embodiment of the abstract and formal.
Computers provide a context for the development of concrete thinking. When we look at particular cases of individuals programming computers, we see a concrete and personal approach to materials that runs into conflict with established ways of doing things within the computer culture.
The practice of computing provides support for a pluralism that is denied by its social construction. The computer stands betwixt and between the world of formal systems and physical things; it has the ability to make the abstract concrete.
The computer has a theoretical vocation: We believe she is right.
A personal appropriation of epistemological pluralism in science requires, at the limit, that we get close to the experiences of an Einstein or a McClintock or a Salk. But you can imagine yourself in the place of a programmer more easily than in the place of an Einstein.
And when you yourself program an activity within the reach of everyoneyou can experience the degree to which your style of solving logical problems is very much your own. In this chapter, we use the computer as an instrument for observing different styles of scientific thought and developing categories for analyzing them.
After presenting cases in which the computer serves as an expressive medium for personal styles, we turn to this more speculative theme: As a carrier for pluralistic ideas, the computer holds the promise of catalyzing change, not only within computation but in our culture at large.
Lisa had feared that she would find the course difficult because she is a poet, "good with words, not numbers. But as the term progressed she reluctantly decided that she "had to be a different kind of person with the machine.
She was in trouble, but her difficulty expressed a strength, not a weakness. Her growing sense of alienation did not stem from an inability to cope with programming but from her ability to handle it in a way that came into conflict with the computer culture she had entered.
Lisa wants to manipulate computer language the way she works with words as she writes a poem. There, she says, she "feels her way from one word to another," sculpting the whole.
When she writes poetry, Lisa experiences language as transparent; she knows where all the elements are at every point in the development of her ideas. She wants her relationship to computer language to be similarly transparent. Her teachers chide her, insisting that her demand for transparency is making her work more difficult; Lisa perseveres, insisting that this is what it takes for her to feel comfortable with computers.
She had been told that the "right way" to do things was to control a program through planning and black-boxing, the technique that lets you exploit opacity to plan something large without knowing in advance how the details will be managed.
Lisa recognized the value of these techniques -- for someone else. She struggled against using them as the starting points for her learning.
Essay Instructions: Toulmin Argument Essay Topic: Pet Adoption through animal shelters and humane society.?A main claim which in at least one to two sentences clearly outlines the purpose for your essay and establishes a specific argument.?At least three body paragraphs, each with a claim, warrant, backing, and other parts of the Toulmin argument that supports and backs your main claim. Feed crop production emissions. Greenhouse gases emitted during the entire feed crop production life-cycle represent the single largest source of GHG s associated with ILO s. Much of this comes from the release of nitrous oxide from fertilizers (see Table 1).Historically, there has been a steady increase in the use of feed crops for animal . The Argument of Animal Testing. or you can do some research about how to write a Rogerian Essay before doing mine. The topic is: The Argument of Animal Testing (this is what you will discuss in the paper) The Toulmin System, an important aspect of a well-planned paper, should be .
Lisa ended up abandoning the fight, doing things "their way," and accepting the inevitable alienation from her work. It was at this point that she called her efforts to become "another kind of person with the machine" her "not-me strategy," and began to insist that the computer is "just a tool.
Robin explains that she masters her music by perfecting the smallest "little bits of pieces" and then building up. She cannot progress until she understands the details of each small part. Robin is happiest when she uses this tried and true method with the computer, playing with small computational elements as though they were notes or musical phrases.
Like Lisa, she is frustrated with black-boxing or using prepackaged programs. She too was told her way was wrong: There are many virtues to this computational approach it certainly makes sense when dividing the labor on a large programming projectbut Lisa and Robin have intellectual styles at war with it.
Lisa says she has "turned herself into a different kind of person" in order to perform, and Robin says she has learned to "fake it.
Both deny who they are in order to succeed.Resources for science teachers. Through NSTA, you'll find leading resources for excellence in teaching and learning and experience growth through robust professional development.
Plus you'll meet colleagues across all science disciplines, all grade bands and teaching stages, from the newest teacher to the veteran administrator, who share .
•Congress should ban animal research (Claim #1) because animals are tortured in experiments that have no necessary benefit for humans such as the testing of cosmetics (Data).
The well being of animals is more 3 Types of Argument: Classical, Rogerian, Toulmin Author. The Toulmin Model of Argument (adapted from: APA Argument Research Paper Instructions. Counter Argument Refutation About Animal Testing. animal testing are “Animal Testing Pros” written by Ranjan Shandilya and “Human Benefits of Animal Testing” by Russel Huebsch.
Mar 23, · Search "Argument essays" or "How to Write a Position Essay" or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to urbanagricultureinitiative.coms: Amazing Topics for a Research Paper.
Alex Barski. Ideas for a Toulmin Argument. Amy Sterling Casil. Home» The Rewrite. For example, write about animal testing and the need for more laws to prevent it.
Or, write about the debate over whether churches, synagogues and mosques should pay taxes. The Argument of Animal Testing.
or you can do some research about how to write a Rogerian Essay before doing mine. The topic is: The Argument of Animal Testing (this is what you will discuss in the paper) The Toulmin System, an important aspect of a well-planned paper, should be .