Open in a separate window aAnalysis not done; unable to calculate because of zeros in the formula. At the beginning of the study, 29 of the 42 schools had state- or district-level school food and beverage policies in place that met the HEALTHY snack food goal, and new policies were implemented at two additional schools at the beginning of the — school year.
The convention speeches by James and Sarah Brady were filled with moving stories of their personal suffering.
While the impacts described on both sides of the issue do exist, the crucial question underlying all gun-control laws is: What is their net effect? Are more lives lost or saved? Do they deter crime or encourage it? Anecdotal evidence obviously cannot resolve this debate.
To provide a more systematic answer, I recently completed a study of one type of gun control law-laws on concealed handguns, also known as "shall-issue" laws.
Thirty-one states give their citizens the right to carry concealed handguns if they do not have a criminal record or a history of significant mental illness.
My study, with David Mustard, a graduate student in economics at the University of Chicago, analyzed the FBI's crime statistics for all 3, American counties from to Our findings are dramatic. Our most conservative estimates show that by adopting shall-issue laws, states reduced murders by 8.
If those states that did not permit concealed handguns in had permitted them back then, citizens might have been spared approximately 1, murders, 4, rapes, 60, aggravated assaults and 12, robberies. To put it even more simply Criminals, we found, respond rationally to deterrence threats.
The benefit of concealed handguns are not limited to just those who carry them or use them in self-defense. The very fact that these weapons are concealed keeps criminals uncertain as to whether a potential victim will be able to defend himself with lethal force.
The possibility that anyone might be carrying a gun makes attacking everyone less attractive; unarmed citizens in effect "free-ride" on their pistol packing fellows.
Our study further found that while some criminals avoid potentially violent crimes after concealed-handgun laws were passed, they do not necessarily give up the criminal life altogether.
Some switch to crimes in which the rise of confronting an armed victim is much lower.
Indeed, the downside of concealed-weapons laws is that while Violent crime rates fall, property offenses like larceny e.
This is certainly a substitution that the country can live with. Our study also provided some surprising information. While support for strict gun-control laws usually bas been strongest in large cities, where crime rates are highest, that's precisely where right-to-carry laws have produced the largest drops in violent crimes.
Concealed handguns also appear to help women more than men. Murder rates decline when either sex carries more guns, but the effect is especially pronounced when women are considered separately.
An additional woman carrying a concealed handgun reduces the murder rate for women by about three to four times more than an additional armed man reduces the murder rate for men.
Victims of violent crime are generally physically weaker than the criminals who prey on them. Allowing a woman to defend herself with a concealed handgun makes a larger difference in her ability to defend herself than the change created by providing a man with a handgun. Guns are the great equalizer between the weak and the vicious.Apr 22, · Vending machines have long been a convenient and relatively low cost method of delivering food and drink.
They have also been a source of . In this study, the relationship of foods sold in school vending machines to the overall consumption of those foods differed by grade. In younger grades, students from schools that sold fruits/vegetables in vending machines consumed more fruits/vegetables than those from schools in which vending machines did not offer fruits/vegetables.
A vending machine sells Uniqlo casual clothing at a shopping mall in New York in September. The machines have been installed at 10 locations in the United States, including Houston airport and a.
At the end of the study, eight schools (four intervention and four control) had eliminated vending machines from campuses, leaving 22 schools with vending machines available to students. One control and one intervention school met the vending machine beverage goal at baseline (Table 2).
A nationwide survey of vending machines in middle schools and high schools finds that 75 percent of the drinks and 85 percent of the snacks sold are of poor nutritional value. The study, of 1, vending machines in schools, was organized by the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) and conducted by volunteers.
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